DermKnowledgeBASE: actinomycosis


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The text is the summary of recent articles on actinomycosis at 75 thresold from National Library of Medicine (NLM). This information is subject to NCBI's Disclaimer and Copyright notice.

In this review of literature, we concomitantly present 11 cases of actinomycosis with different localizations, diagnosed at a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2016 [1]. Its manifestations could be similar to infectious conditions from other etiologies, thus, having a better understanding of the entity increases clinical suspicion and also it can provide a timely treatment [2]. Although the most common clinical forms of actinomycosis are cervicofacial, involvement of the nose and paranasal sinuses are extremely rare [3]. Furthermore, Nasal cavity actinomycosis mimicking rhinolith has not been reported in the literature previously [4]. Hemolytic Anemia associated with infectious endocarditis is rare [5].

Although it is important to exclude nocardiosis and actinomycosis when diagnosing botryomycosis, our patient was diagnosed with botryomycosis after Multiple biopsies and positive MRSA cultures 2 years prior to 1 positive N mexicana culture [6]. To the best of our knowledge, isolated primary actinomycosis of the humerus is rarely reported in literature [7]. We present a rare case of a refractory primary actinomycosis of the humerus [8]. Definite diagnosis of actinomycosis was established later upon histopathologic examination and successfully treated by β-lactam Antibiotics [9]. This study determined the frequency and correlated the content of bacteria colonies with the of periapical actinomycosis size [10].

All of cases were therapy-resistant and did not showed periapical repair after 12 months of follow-up [11]. The frequency of periapical actinomycosis was low, and this Lesion should be included in the differential diagnosis of PL [12]. Cervicofacial involvement in the form of a peri-mandibular Inflammatory Nodule with secondary fistulation on the skin or in the Mouth is the classic presentation [13]. Only two cases of tuberculosis have been reported with sorafenib [14]. EGD was performed again and showed a white cord lump at the bottom of the same esophageal Ulcer identified before, showing no improving tendency [15].

A repeated Biopsy of the lump revealed actinomycosis, and the symptoms were improved by the Oral administration of ampicillin [16]. The most common Granulomatous disease of the thyroid is subacute Granulomatous thyroiditis, which is presumed to have a viral or post-viral Inflammatory cause [17]. Bacterial etiologies include tuberculosis, actinomycosis, and nocardiosis, but are extremely rare [18]. Fine needle aspiration of these nodules demonstrated suppurative Granulomatous thyroiditis [19]. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) I, II, III, cervical cancer and microbial infection (Actinomyces, Trichomonas vaginalis and Yeast cells) diagnosis was based on Pap smear screening test and High Vaginal Swab wet preparation microscopy [20].

Aspergillosis and Actinomycosis each of them was reported in case, but mixed infection of both organisms is rare, only one case has been reported [21]. In this study, we report a case of retroperitoneal actinomycosis caused by an infected, obstructing ureteral stone [22]. Conclusion: actinomycosis is a rare invasive infection that is caused when the Actinomyces bacteria colonizes damaged tissue [23]. His initial imaging studies including computed tomography (CT) was suggestive of bronchogenic Carcinoma [24]. These genera share many overlapping cytomorphologic features, including their thin, beaded, branching, Gram-positive, GMS-positive filamentous structures that fragment at their peripheries into bacillary- and coccoid-appearing forms [25].

Features that help distinguish between these 2 microorganisms include the width of their filamentous structures, the angles at which they branch, and their ability or lack thereof to retain a modified acid-fast stain [26]. Differentiating between Nocardia and Actinomyces is essential because patients with these infections require different approaches to medical management [27]. In this case, an analysis of the aspirate from frank pus revealed Gram-positive coccobacilli [28]. We initially strongly suspected lung abscess associated with actinomycosis because of the chronic/recurrent clinical course and radio-pathological findings such as a Granuloma Lesion [29]. Neurosurgical drainage cultures showed growth of Actinomyces meyeri, Streptococcus intermedius, and Parvimonas micra [30].

Most of these patients had complications: autoimmune diseases in 3 (2 with autoimmune hemolytic Anemia and 1 with Systemic lupus erythematosus), and bronchiectasis in 6 patients [31]. There are variable presentations of Pulmonary actinomycosis with similarity in manifestations to other infectious diseases of the Lungs [32]. Pulmonary actinomycosis is diagnosed by fine needle aspiration, bronchoscopy and finding of typical sulfur granules [33]. We present a case of Pulmonary actinomycosis in a middle aged (AIDS/HCV) man with massive hemoptysis and Progressive dyspnoea [34]. Histopathologic examination revealed the aggregations of filamentous Gram-positive organisms with characteristic pattern "sulfur granules", indicating actinomycosis [35].

The preoperative diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis is difficult because the condition can be easily confused with malignancy, tuberculosis, or other Inflammatory diseases [36]. We report a case of omental actinomycosis mimicking a foreign body [37]. Thus, cutaneous involvement in ALCL can resemble Inflammatory and other neoplastic lesions clinically and cytologically [38]. Abdominal actinomycosis is a subacute or indolent disease associated with Actinomyces spp [39]. Since ulcerations in the intestinal tract are thought to be caused by Actinomyces escaping from the gut lumen and establishing intra-abdominal infection, it seems likely that abdominal actinomycosis may occur in patients with Inflammatory bowel disease [40].

The remaining two isolates, both of which were isolated from root canals (one from Sweden and the other from the UK), but were identified as Actinomyces haliotis by sequencing ∼ 1300 base pairs of the 16S rRNA-gene [41].

References: 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 ,

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I have varied research interests ranging from eHealth, Health Information Exchange, Clinical Trials and Research, Contact Dermatitis, Bioinformatics, and Cosmetic Dermatology. I have work experience in Canada as an eHealth analyst, and in Dubai and India as a Specialist Dermatologist.


Bell Raj Eapen
Hamilton, ON