DermKnowledgeBASE: Sicca Syndrome

Sicca Syndrome

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The text is the summary of recent articles on Sicca Syndrome at 75 thresold from National Library of Medicine (NLM). This information is subject to NCBI's Disclaimer and Copyright notice.

Thus, labial salivary Gland biopsy is useful method for diagnosing SS [1]. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microRNA (miRNA or miR) profile of labial salivary glands obtained from SS patients and to examine the correlation of miR-181a and -16 levels with the pathological grade in SS [2]. Compared with the control group, 76 miRNAs were upregulated and 51 were downregulated in the labial salivary Gland of SS patients according to microarray results [3]. In conclusion, the present study examined the miRNA profiles in the labial salivary glands of SS patients and detected decreased miR-181a and -16 expression levels compared with the control individuals [4]. ALys phenotype mainly involves the digestive tract, liver and spleen, Kidneys, lymph nodes, skin, and lachrymal and salivary glands [5].

Thoracic endoscopy revealed a fragile, inflammatory, and Granulomatous aspect of the bronchi [6]. Amyloid deposits were observed in the upper digestive tract, salivary glands, Temporal artery, and tracheobronchial tree [7]. According to immunoglobulin composition, cryoglobulinemia is classified into three types [8]. Here, we report our experience over an 18-month period with 15 patients evaluated in the rheumatology department for rheumatic irAEs [9]. We identified 13 patients without pre-existing Autoimmune Disease (AID) who subsequently developed rheumatic irAEs, and two with established AID referred pre-emptively [10].

All cases required glucocorticoids, and three required a biological agent [11]. VV reports grants and personal fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb, grants and personal fees from Genentech, grants and personal fees from Merck, grants and personal fees from Astra Zeneca, personal fees from Celgene, grants and personal fees from Genoptix, personal fees from Foundation medicine, outside the submitted work [12]. Extraglandular manifestations may also be prevalent in patients with pSS, including cutaneous, musculoskeletal, Pulmonary, renal, hematological and neurological involvement [13]. In addition, many extrahepatic manifestations including rheumatologic disorders have been reported in up to two-third of HCV infected patients [14]. The mechanism of these drugs, non-specifically activating T Cells, also leads to immune-mediated damage of tissue or immune-related adverse events (IRAE) [15].

Anti-HCV Antibodies and viral ribonucleic acid, HCV RNA, can be found in the cryoprecipitates, together with the rheumatoid factor [16]. Moreover, at the immunohistochemical level in patients with pSS, minor salivary glands showed a peculiar pattern characterized by immunostaining for Tβ10 in acinar Cells in the absence of any reactivity for Tβ4 [17]. In this respect, a multidisciplinary network of experts, the International Study Group of Extrahepatic Manifestations Related to Hepatitis C Virus Infection (ISG-EHCV), was organized with the intention to formulate diagnostic guidelines for the work-up of possible HCV-EHDs [18]. The proposed multidisciplinary expert statement represents the first attempt to draw comprehensive diagnostic guidelines for HCV-infected individuals encompassing the entire spectrum of HCV-related disorders, namely typical hepatic manifestations along with less common, often unpredictable HCV-EHDs [19]. In conclusion, the application of standardized but thorough diagnostic guidelines of HCV-EHDs is advisable at the referral stage as well as during the follow-up period of HCV infected patients [20].

Twenty-one women with pSS and 11 with nS-SS (investigated by xerophtalmia and xerostomia tests, Biopsy of minor salivary glands, gynecological history, and gynecologic symptoms score) underwent vulvar biopsies, evaluated for histopathologic and immunohistochemicalchanges, and compared with those obtained from 26 patients with lichen sclerosus [21]. No differences were found in gynecologic symptoms, as well as in clinical and demographical characteristics between patients with mild and those with moderate vulvar inflammatory score [22]. Women with pSS and nS-SS show a high and similar prevalence of vulvar Inflammatory Infiltrate [23]. The diagnosis of pSS is complex and requires a stepwise approach to evaluate symptoms of ocular and Oral Dryness, objective measures of lacrimal and salivary Gland dysfunction, and evidence of autoimmunity with Ro/La autoantibodies and labial salivary Gland Biopsy [24]. All samples were immunohistochemically evaluated for the presence and Distribution of specific leukocyte subsets using appropriate markers and for the expression of certain immunoregulatory molecules by salivary Gland epithelial Cells [25].

Serositis, joint and neurological involvement were more frequently diagnosed in the South Asian patients [26]. Neurological manifestations are rarely seen in SS although they are debilitating [27]. Peripheral neuropathies namely sensory axonal Neuropathy and Painful small fiber Neuropathy are the most frequent neurological manifestations [28].

References: 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 ,

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I have varied research interests ranging from eHealth, Health Information Exchange, Clinical Trials and Research, Contact Dermatitis, Bioinformatics, and Cosmetic Dermatology. I have work experience in Canada as an eHealth analyst, and in Dubai and India as a Specialist Dermatologist.


Bell Raj Eapen
Hamilton, ON