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The text is the summary of recent articles on Periorbital Hyperpigmentation at 75 thresold from National Library of Medicine (NLM). This information is subject to NCBI's Disclaimer and Copyright notice.
The hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that patients with Periorbital melasma can be categorized into two clusters according to the surface anatomy of the face . periorbital hyperpigmentation presents as a dark area surrounding the eyelids . Objective: In the present study, the authors examined the prevalence and the associated factors of periorbital hyperpigmentation among patients with xanthelasma . Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients with xanthelasma palpebrarum were examined for the presence of dark circles . Conclusions: This study showed that a significant Number of patients with xanthelasma exhibited periorbital Hyperpigmentation .
There is very little scientific data available on the clinical profile and pathogenesis of periorbital Hyperpigmentation . periorbital hyperpigmentation is caused by various exogenous and endogenous factors . The causative factors include genetic or heredity, excessive Pigmentation, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation secondary to atopic and allergic contact Dermatitis, Periorbital Edema, excessive vascularity, shadowing due to skin laxity and tear trough associated with aging . There are a number of treatment options available for periorbital hyperpigmentation . Among the available alternatives to treat dark circles are topical depigmenting agents, such as Hydroquinone, kojic acid, azelaic acid, and topical retinoic acid, and physical therapies, such as chemical peels, Surgical corrections, and laser therapy, most of which are tried scientifically for melasma, another common condition of Hyperpigmentation that occurs on the Face .
The possible causes were determined according to a detailed history, clinical examination, and assessment by three dermatologists . In this study, we ascertained a Spanish family demonstrating the Autosomal recessive form of HED . Affected individuals in the family showed the characteristic features of HED, including fine and Sparse Scalp Hair, Sparse eyebrows and eyelashes, periorbital hyperpigmentation, Prominent Lips, hypodontia and Conical Teeth, reduced sweating, and dry and thin skin . Each patient presented with hypohidrosis, Sparse Hair, oligodontia with Conical Teeth, periorbital hyperpigmentation, eczematous Dermatitis, and facial features that include frontal bossing, a saddle nose, and Prominent Lips . Both steps were repeated two to four times until physical clearance of the Pigmentation was confirmed and patient satisfaction was achieved .
Histologic examination showed obvious Epidermal Hyperpigmentation in 10 specimens . It is transmitted by an X-linked recessive gene or rarely an autosomal recessive gene . Typically there is frontal bossing, saddle nose, pointed chin, a prominent supraorbital ridge with periorbital hyperpigmentation, and absence of Teeth . In the current absence of effective treatment for many hereditary skin diseases, comprehensive, accurate prenatal or postnatal genetic counseling can provide information to parents at risk of having affected Children . Eleven patients with periorbital hyperpigmentation were treated with the Q-switched alexandrite Laser immediately following use of the pulsed CO2 Laser .
We describe an 8-year-old girl with erythema dyschromicum perstans presenting as bilateral acquired periorbital hyperpigmentation .
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