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Freckle

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The text is the summary of recent articles on Freckle at 75 thresold from National Library of Medicine (NLM). This information is subject to NCBI's Disclaimer and Copyright notice.


It typically progresses slowly and may eventually develop into an invasive melanoma, which is called lentigo maligna melanoma [1]. Confocal evaluation was blinded to clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis [2]. Although the etiology of the predisposition to UVR-induced skin Tumors in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A is well investigated as a repair Deficiency in UVR-induced DNA damage, the mechanism of exaggerated sunburn in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A and whether UVR-induced Inflammation relates to a skin tumor-prone phenotype remains to be elucidated [3]. Using gene profiling of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A model mice, Xpa-deficient mice, we found that expression of CXCL1 in the skin and blood of Xpa-deficient mice increased significantly after UVB exposure over even a limited area compared with that of wild-type mice [4]. Histological analysis was performed not only to confirm the formation of distinct skin layers, but also to identify the presence of pigmentation [5].

For margin delineation, the data suggest that mapping using VivaScope 1500 for lentigo maligna (LM) and LM melanoma may improve accuracy in terms of complete Excision of lesions compared with dermoscopically determined margins [6]. Tumor thickness and histologic subtype were not associated with subclinical spread [7]. Although in vivo reflectance confocal Microscopy is an add-on tool for lentigo maligna mapping, fluorescence confocal Microscopy is far superior for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma margin assessment in the Mohs setting [8]. However, acquisition of high-quality images with dermoscopy and with traditional wide-probe reflectance confocal Microscopy (WP-RCM) have been hampered with technical difficulties [9]. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma [10].

Some XP patients demonstrate severe cutaneous and neurological manifestations, management of which requires timely diagnosis and intervention [11]. We present a series of 14 patients diagnosed with extrafacial lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma at Hospital General de Valencia and Hospital de Manacor in Spain, and describe the clinical, dermoscopic, and histologic features observed [12]. The dermoscopic patterns were consistent with facial lentigo maligna and superficial spreading melanoma [13]. The patient was scheduled for robot-assisted left inguinal video endoscopic lymphadenectomy [14]. In patients with lentigo maligna, the clinically visible demarcation often correlates poorly with the histopathologically confirmed demarcation [15].

The standard treatment for lentigo maligna is Excision with at least 5 mm margins [16].

References: 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ,

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I have varied research interests ranging from eHealth, Health Information Exchange, Clinical Trials and Research, Contact Dermatitis, Bioinformatics, and Cosmetic Dermatology. I have work experience in Canada as an eHealth analyst, and in Dubai and India as a Specialist Dermatologist.

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